Secret to Herman Anderson's water fuel system...

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Secret to Herman Anderson's water fuel system...

Postby James Allen » Wed Feb 08, 2006 10:48 pm

Corona discharge
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In electricity, a corona discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid surrounding a conductor, which occurs when the potential gradient exceeds a certain value, in situations where sparking (also known as arcing) is not favoured.

Contents [hide]
1 Introduction
2 Applications of corona discharge
3 Problems caused by corona discharges
4 Mechanism of corona discharge
5 Electrical properties
6 Positive coronas
6.1 Properties
6.2 Mechanism
7 Negative coronas
7.1 Properties
7.2 Mechanism
8 References
9 External links



[edit]
Introduction
A corona is a process by which a current, perhaps sustained, develops from an electrode with a high potential gradient in a neutral fluid, usually air, by ionising that fluid so as to create a plasma around the electrode. The ions generated eventually pass the charge to a lower potential (usually the reference point of the generator which is normally earth)

When the potential gradient is large enough at a point in the fluid, the fluid at that point ionizes and it becomes conductive. If a charged object has a sharp point, the air around that point will be at a higher gradient than elsewhere, and can become conductive while other points in the air do not. When the air becomes conductive, it effectively increases the size of the conductor. If the new conductive region is less sharp, the ionization may not extend past this local region. Outside of this region of ionization and conductivity, the charged particles slowly find their way to an oppositely charged object and are neutralized.

If the geometry and gradient are such that the ionized region continues to grow instead of stopping at a certain radius, a completely conductive path is formed, and a momentary (or continuous) spark (or arc) occurs.

Corona discharge usually involves two asymmetric electrodes, one highly curved (such as the tip of a needle, or a narrow wire) and one of low curvature (such as a plate, or the ground). The high curvature ensures a high potential gradient around one electrode, for the generation of a plasma.

Coronas may be positive, or negative. This is determined by the polarity of the voltage on the highly-curved electrode. If the curved electrode is positive with respect to the flat electrode we say we have a positive corona, if negative we say we have a negative corona. (See below for more details.) The physics of positive and negative coronas are strikingly different. This asymmetry is a result of the great difference in mass between electrons and positively charged ions, with only the electron having the ability to undergo a significant degree of ionising inelastic collision at common temperatures and pressures.

An important reason for considering coronas is the production of ozone around conductors undergoing corona processes. A negative corona generates much more ozone than the corresponding positive corona.

[edit]
Applications of corona discharge
Corona discharge has a number of commercial and industrial applications.

Manufacture of ozone
Scrubbing particles from air in air-conditioning systems
Removal of unwanted volatile organics, such as chemical pesticides, solvents, chemical weapons agents, from the atmosphere
Surface Treatment of polymer films to improve compatibility with adhesives or printing inks.
Photocopying
Air ionisers perhaps benefiting health
Kirlian photography is believed, by some, to be of use in visualising auras.
EHD thrusters, Lifters, and ionic wind
Nitrogen laser
Coronas can be used to generate charged surfaces, which is an effect used in electrostatic copying (photocopying). They can also be used to remove particulate matter from air streams by first charging the air, and then passing the charged stream through a comb of alternating polarity, to deposit the charged particles on the oppositely charged plates.

The free-radicals and ions generated in corona reactions can be used to scrub the air of certain noxious products, through chemical reactions, and can be used to produce ozone.

[edit]
Problems caused by corona discharges
Coronas can generate audible and radio-frequency noise, particularly in electric power transmission lines. They also represent a power loss and can indicate equipment degradation. Their action on atmospheric particulates, and their ozone and NOx production can also be disadvantageous to human health where power lines run through built-up areas. Therefore, power transmission equipment is designed to minimise the formation of corona discharge. Corona discharge is generally undesirable in:

Electric power transmission, owing to loss of power in corona processes, and noise
Inside electrical components such as transformers, capacitors, electric motors and generators. Corona progressively damages the insulation inside these devices, leading to premature failure.
Situations where high voltages are in use, but ozone production is to be minimised
[edit]
Mechanism of corona discharge
Corona discharge of both the positive and negative variety have certain mechanisms in common.

A neutral atom in the medium, in a region of strong field (high potential gradient, near the curved electrode) is ionized by an exogenous environmental event (for example, as the result of a photon interaction), to create a positive ion and an electron.
The strong field then operates on these charged particles, separating them, and preventing their recombination, and also accelerating them, imparting each of them with kinetic energy.
As a result of the energisation of the electrons (which have a much higher charge/mass ratio and so are accelerated more acutely), further electron/positive-ion pairs are created by collision with neutral atoms. These then undergo the same separating process creating an electron avalanche.
In processes which differ between positive and negative coronas, the energy of these plasma processes is converted into further initial electron dissociations to seed further avalanches.
An ion species created in this series of avalanches (which differs between positive and negative coronas) is attracted to the uncurved electrode, completing the circuit, and sustaining the current flow.
Both positive and negative coronas rely on a process known as the electron avalanche.

The onset voltage of corona or Corona Inception Voltage (CIV) can be found with Peek's law (1929), formulated from empirical observations.

[edit]
Electrical properties
The current carried by the corona is determined by integrating the current density over the surface of the conductor. The power loss is determined by multiplying the current and the voltage.

[edit]
Positive coronas
[edit]
Properties
A positive corona is manifested as a uniform plasma across the length of a conductor. It can often be seen glowing blue/white, though much of the emissions are in the ultraviolet. The uniformity of the plasma owes itself to the homogeneous source of secondary avalanche electrons described in the mechanism section, below. With the same geometry and voltages, it appears a little smaller than the corresponding negative corona, owing to the lack of a non-ionising plasma region between the inner and outer regions. There are many fewer free electrons in a positive corona, when compared to a negative corona, except very close to the curved electrode: perhaps a thousandth of the electron density, and a hundredth of the total number of electrons.

However, the electrons in a positive corona are concentrated close to the surface of the curved conductor, in a region of high-potential gradient (and therefore the electrons have a high energy), whereas in a negative corona many of the electrons are in the outer, lower-field areas. Therefore, if electrons are to be used in an application which requires a high activation energy, positive coronas may support a greater reaction constants than corresponding negative coronas; though the number of electrons may be lower, the number of a very high energy may be higher.

Coronas are efficient producers of ozone in air. A positive corona generates much less ozone than the corresponding negative corona, as the reactions which produce ozone are relatively low-energy. Therefore, the greater number of electrons of a negative corona leads to an increased production.

Beyond the plasma, in the unipolar region, the flow is of low-energy positive ions toward the flat electrode.

[edit]
Mechanism
As with a negative corona, a positive corona is initiated by an exogenous ionisation event in a region of high potential gradient. The electrons resulting from the ionisation are attracted toward the curved electrode, and the positive ions repelled from it. By undergoing inelastic collisions closer and closer to the curved electrode, further molecules are ionized in an electron avalanche.

In a positive corona, secondary electrons, for further avalanches, are generated predominantly in the fluid itself, in the region outside the plasma or avalanche region. They are created by ionization caused by the photons emitted from that plasma in the various de-excitation processes occurring within the plasma after electron collisions, the thermal energy liberated in those collisions creating photons which are radiated into the gas. The electrons resulting from the ionisation of a neutral gas molecule are then electrically attracted back toward the curved electrode, attracted into the plasma, and so begins the process of creating further avalanches inside the plasma.

As can be seen, the positive corona is divided into two regions, concentric around the sharp electrode. The inner region contains ionising electrons, and positive ions, acting as a plasma, the electrons avalanche in this region, creating many further ion/electron pairs. The outer region consists almost entirely of the slowly migrating massive positive ions, moving toward the uncurved electrode along with, close to the interface of this region, secondary electrons, liberated by photons leaving the plasma, being re-accelerated into the plasma. The inner region is known as the plasma region, the outer as the unipolar region.

[edit]
Negative coronas
[edit]
Properties
A negative corona is manifested in a non-uniform corona, varying according to the surface features and irregularities of the curved conductor. It often appears as tufts of corona at sharp edges, the number of tufts altering with the strength of the field. The form of negative coronas is a result of its source of secondary avalanche electrons (see below). It appears a little larger than the corresponding positive corona, as electrons are allowed to drift out of the ionising region, and so the plasma continues some distance beyond it. The total number of electrons, and electron density is much greater than in the corresponding positive corona. However, they are of a predominantly lower energy, owing to being in a region of lower potential-gradient. Therefore, whilst for many reactions the increased electron density will increase the reaction rate, the lower energy of the electrons will mean that reactions which require a higher electron energy may take place at a lower rate.

[edit]
Mechanism
Negative coronas are more complex than positive coronas in construction. As with positive coronas, the establishing of a corona begins with an exogenous ionisation event generating a primary electron, followed by an electron avalanche.

Electrons ionised from the neutral gas are not useful in sustaining the negative corona process by generating secondary electrons for further avalanches, as the general movement of electrons in a negative corona is outward from the curved electrode. For negative corona, instead, the dominant process generating secondary electrons is the photoelectric effect, from the surface of the electrode itself. The work-function of the electrons (the energy required to liberate the electrons from the surface) is considerably lower than the ionisation energy of air at standard temperatures and pressures, making it a more liberal source of secondary electrons under these conditions. Again, the source of energy for the electron-liberation is a high-energy photon from an atom within the plasma body relaxing after excitation from an earlier collision. The use of ionised neutral gas as a source of ionisation is further diminished in a negative corona by the high-concentration of positive ions clustering around the curved electrode.

Under other conditions, the collision of the positive species with the curved electrode can also cause electron liberation.

The difference, then, between positive and negative coronas, in the matter of the generation of secondary electron avalanches, is that in a positive corona they are generated by the gas surrounding the plasma region, the new secondary electrons travelling inward, whereas in a negative corona they are generated by the curved electrode itself, the new secondary electrons travelling outward.

A further feature of the structure of negative coronas is that as the electrons drift outwards, they encounter neutral molecules and, with electronegative molecules (such as Oxygen and Water vapour), combine to produce negative ions. These negative ions are then attracted to the positive uncurved electrode, completing the 'circuit'.

A negative corona can be divided into three radial areas, around the sharp electrode. In the inner area, high-energy electrons inelastically collide with neutral atoms and cause avalanches, whilst outer electrons (usually of a lower energy) combine with neutral atoms to produce negative ions. In the intermediate region, electrons combine to form negative ions, but typically have insufficient energy to cause avalanche ionisation, but remain part of a plasma owing to the different polarities of the species present, and the ability to partake in characteristic plasma reactions. In the outer region, only a flow of negative ions and, to a lesser and radially-decreasing extent, free electrons toward the positive electrode takes place. The inner two regions are known as the corona plasma. The inner region is an ionising plasma, the middle a non-ionising plasma. The outer region is known as the unipolar region.

Negative coronas can only be sustained in fluids with electronegative molecules, to capture free electrons. Without the electronegative molecules capturing the free electrons, a simple path of electron flow of ionised gas exists between the two electrodes and an arc, or spark, develops.
The world's first Water Fuel Museum opened in 2005, which was the 200th anniversary of the first H2 powered car! The museum is in downtown Lexington, KY. Hours: Monday - Saturday 10:00 - 4:00 Just follow the signs from I-64/I-75. waterfuelmuseum.org
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Herman

Postby kevinsatterfield » Fri Feb 24, 2006 6:34 pm

Ready to get excited agin......? http://www.svpvril.com/WRadis.html
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Postby thrival » Sat Feb 25, 2006 12:44 pm

Actually there's a huge amount of study on the subject of X-rays
by the military-industrial complex that never gets published for
us little people, unless you subscribe to their expensive, private-
corporate journals.

Standard X-ray tubes are probably not the way to go. They suck
lots of power. A website I was reading on the subject of phosphors,
said it takes 80kV to activate/produce X-rays, require water to cool
the tubes (which are complex to make, and expensive), etc. They've
made the whole field so difficult and pricey to get into that only doctors/
hospitals can afford the equipment, which isn't especially efficient
from the angle of power consumption! Maybe just as well to prevent
more people from frying themselves.
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herman

Postby kevinsatterfield » Sat Feb 25, 2006 1:35 pm

Im gonna paste some replies from Mr.Allen here as questions arise as he has Herman's CAR and his video with an explanation of how his system works made by Herman his self.


The way Herman Anderson explains it, deuterium is created in an
> electrolysis, or, more correctly, radiolysis chamber when deionized or
> ozonated water (with pH 12 KOH) is hit with 70,000 volts pulsed in a
> standing wave through a 14" OD soft steel cathode and anode, spaced
> just over 3" apart. Whether there are other ways of making it, I don't
> know. But I don't think the world in general knows that it can be made
> this way. Where's that guy who wanted to make some money? People
> associate it with the hydrogen bomb, probably thinking it is
> radioactive, which it is not. Maybe that's why no one has been
> experimenting with it as fuel for our cars, etc
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Postby kevinsatterfield » Sat Feb 25, 2006 1:36 pm

Herman Anderson declared that his hydrogen ICE was becoming a partial steam engine by the use of micron-sized water injection.
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Postby kevinsatterfield » Sat Feb 25, 2006 1:37 pm

With regard to the danger of the "radiation" from the 70,000 volts, a
> mechanic came through the museum last month and said that Cadillacs
> now use a 100,000 volt ignition coil! Obviously there needs to be
> shielding, and you don't want to get shocked by it; it could be
> lethal. But what was considered dangerous EM radiation on Herman's car
> a few years ago is now part of standard ignition equipment on others
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Postby kevinsatterfield » Sat Feb 25, 2006 1:39 pm

James Allen wrote:
> Excuse me for answering a question not directed to me, but someone asked
> for info about Herman's car the other day, and this may do something for
> both questions. Allow me to answer from the standpoint of just one
> approach, that of "Ion King" Herman Anderson's 1971 Ford LTD V-8
> converted to run on hydrogen or gasoline, on display in the Water Fuel
> Museum in Lexington, KY. In a video interview with the inventor, he
> explains that ambient air is mixed with hydrogen (not oxygen) and a
> micron-sized fog of water mist (to mimic gasoline's burn), introduced in
> the same way propane gas is on a propane conversion. In fact, the LP
> regulator and LP aircleaner assembly are the same as on a propane
> vehicle. The butterfly in the carb, as in an LP system, now serves as
> the intake air control. The rest of the function of the gasoline carb is
> not used. He claimed greater power than gasoline, and 38 miles per
> gallon of water. As far as quantity of hydrogen produced, he produced
> enough gas from his electrolytic chamber to need a cut-off switch
> connected to a pressure gauge to stop gas production when it was no
> longer needed while driving. In other words, instead of producing more
> or less gas on demand, as some systems do, it appears his system always
> produced the same amount, but was turned on and off as needed. He
> emphasized that deuterium (heavy water) was essential to his approach,
> doubling the density of the hydrogen, making it twice as powerful. He
> also used high voltage, 70,000 volts to be exact, from two custom-made
> coils, to effect rapid separation of the component gases, a process
> which he calls 'radiolysis.' The 70,000 volts constitute what he calls a
> 'soft' x-ray, not radioactive but in need of shielding, in-between a
> microwave oven and a 'hard' x-ray. He was authorized by the state of
> Tennessee to drive his car as they recognized that he knew what he was
> doing with such technology. I view his prototype LTD as good proof of a
> watercar for those who doubt that the technology is even possible, but
> not necessarily the best approach for you and me to pursue.
> He accomplished his invention along the lines of his expertise, the
> field of ionics; others have approached it differently with less
> controversial technology and have been equally successful. I hope this
> helps.
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Postby kevinsatterfield » Sat Feb 25, 2006 1:40 pm

I have just read Herman Andersons Patent 6,119,651. He describes a
> >system of powering a lawn mower with his special spark plug. The spark
> >timing is not altered. In fact he sais it is prefferable to thave the
> >doubble spark as a plasma is created on the exhost stroke that acts as
> >a valve and reduces emmisions. He feeds hydrogen (if I have it
> >correct) continuosly through a port in the spark plug at a pressure of
> >25 PSI. I would think that on an 8 to 1 commpression engin the
> >pressure during compression would exceed that especially if the
> >trottle is opened wide. Fully aspired you would approch 120 PSI. He
> >mentions a steel ball valve which I assume closes under back pressure.
> >Anyway I am now confident that the spark will work without retardation.
> >
> >Today I am planning the mounting of the 4 cells, the bubbler, and the
> >transformer on the fondation board.
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Postby kevinsatterfield » Sat Feb 25, 2006 1:42 pm

Herman Anderson mentions "radiolysis" in his video: 70,000 volts produced from two 35,000 volt custom-made coils connected in series, saying that he employed it along with his cathode and anode to help speed up the separation of hydrogen and oxygen. By the way, oxygen was of no use to his system, but was sent into the passenger compartment for enriched breathing air. He used a fogger that produced micron-sized fog to induct water to help cool the burn of the double-dense hydrogen he produced, which was sucked in through the stock carb using a normal propane regulator system such as used on an LP forklift or car. His car is a 1971 LTD V-8, and a switch on the dashboard changed it over to gasoline. He held up his hand and swore to 38 MPG running on water. We know what MPG the old beast got on gasoline...
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Postby kevinsatterfield » Sat Feb 25, 2006 1:43 pm

Herman P. Anderson used 'Ionized Water' in his car and also mentioned that maybe that was his secret that made it work. Once water is ran through an ionizor, you get both positive and negative charged water or alkaline and acidic water. Since we use various acids as our electrolyte, I think he used the acidic water for his electrolyzer. Hello? Any one remember this?
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Postby kevinsatterfield » Sat Feb 25, 2006 1:46 pm

Herman specifically says in a video that such pushing of hydrogen atoms by positive magnetism is vital to the success of his system.
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Postby kevinsatterfield » Sat Feb 25, 2006 1:47 pm

He did say the spacing between the nickel-plated magnetic steel was set at 3" for a reason, arrived at through trial and error.
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Postby kevinsatterfield » Sat Feb 25, 2006 1:51 pm

Ok I'll post an excert from the link on live'n water here now.


On the other hand, Guenther and Holzapfel irradiated water with X-rays in contact with a large free volume in a vacuum system and found large continuing yields of hydrogen gas. The experimental situation on water radiolysis in 1940 was indeed confusing. This confusion is reflected in the ideas about water radiolysis expressed in D. E. Lea's otherwise excellent book "Actions of Radiations on Living Cells" published in 1946. A better understanding of the subject had already been obtained within the U.S. atomic energy project, but this material could not be published at that time.
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Postby kevinsatterfield » Sat Feb 25, 2006 1:54 pm

I hope this information will be of some help and understanding of how Herman done it.......it all still isnt very clear to me but maybe some you smarter guys can understand a little better.Mr. Allen is in the process of try'n to duplicate cell construction at the moment.
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Postby kevinsatterfield » Sat Feb 25, 2006 3:28 pm

another post from Mr.Allen,



Here's what Herman Anderson said: If you start the electrolysis process with pH 12 KOH deionized of ozonated water in a 13" round drum chamber with opposing nickel-plated steel cathode and anode plates using 12 volts/high amps, and with a corona wire alternately perform radiolysis and simultaneously catalyze the resulting gas at the cathode with the EMF from 70,000V high voltage/low amps, you get something different than regular H2. You double the mass density of the H2. You double the explosive power of the gas. If you induct into the engine of a car the resulting gases along with atmospheric air and micron-sized water vapor, you again increase the mass density and power of the combustible gases, and convert the car's ICE into a partial steam engine. A higher voltage coil should also be used for ignition.
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